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         Geetagovinda Mantras
        Oriya Geetagovindasongs
        Sanskrit Geetagovindasongs

    The widely acclaimed lyrical composition of Gita Govinda of Sri Jayadev, the 12 century A.D. saint poet, has been a powerful influence on several genres of creative and performing arts in various parts of India. It is perhaps the most lyrical Sanskrit composition of the medieval era. Among the myriads of epic poets of India, Shri Jayadeva, the composer of the unique Gitagovinda stands singularly as a conspicuous poet of paramount prominence. Scholars from all over the world have accepted this work as a rare work full of emotion, eroticism, love and devotion. The theme of the Kavya revolves round the celestial love lore of Radha and Krishna. For the first time Jayadeva popularized the worship of Radha Krishna cult in India through his lucid Gitagovinda composition.

    Sri Jayadev was born on the auspicious day of Akshaya Trutiya from Sri Bhojadeva and Smt. Bamadevi in Kenduli village surrounded by Kendu & Bilwa trees, situated near Prachi Valley of Puri District.   Like Bhakta-Kabi Jagannath Dash’s “Bhagabata”, Sri Jayadev’s Geeta Govinda (composed in the second half of the 12th century A.D.) was spread due to its rhythmic musical excellence which was so dear to Sri Jagannath. Sri Jayadeva not only contributed to the development of art, classical raga music, musical literature and sangita within the fold of rich ancient Indian cultural heritage, but also left behind a strong and rich tradition of ancient Indian classical music including all the three performing musical arts viz. vocal, instrumental and dancing for the prosperity. Shri Jayadeva flourished in the 12th century A.D. as is evident from the Kenduli copper plate grant discovered at Kenduli. Because of the lucidity and flamboyant style of Sringara consciousness, his work became popular in India within a short span of fifty years. Till now, more than fifty Tikas and more than 155 copied kavyas have already been written. Gitagovinda has also been translated into many foreign languages like French, Russian, Japanese, English and Korean etc. Appropriately at present Gitagovinda has occupied an outstanding position in the firmament of world literature. Verily, it can be attributed as a literary heritage of humanity.

    There was a story behind his composed poem Geetagovinda. One day when he was child reached Kapila Asrama to worship  Lord Kapilanatha Siva. The he visited Lord Madhava. Later on he went to Manikapura in Kantapara and worshipped Gokarneswar and Madhava. There he visited Bhagirathi Ashram. He crossed the river Prachi and came to Antravedi Math at Tribeni ghat. After night halting there in the next morning he went Ashram at Pandabkud. A sanyasi blessed him and advised him to visit Niali Madhava, Soumeswar Siva and other deities like Bhola Madhava and Jagatmbike. Then the sanyasi realised his devotion to god and advised  Vishnu Mantra with Gayatri Mantra and start pranayam with recitation of Vishnu Mantra.. On third day God appeared in dream and asked him to go to Triveni Ghat  and locate Radha-Madhaba image from the river bed. God asked him to worship the image and articulate the Geetagovinda for the welfare of society. On the next day he recovered Radha-Madhava image from the river bed.

    Padmavati, wife of Sri Jayadev was an excellent dancer. Everyday she performed dance before Lord Jagannath singing the songs in Chorus accompanied by Jayadev and merged in the thoughts of Lord Jagannath. Sri Jayadev directed Padmavati how to perform. Except dance and music direction, Sri Jayadev was specialist in Raga and Tala and Chhanda. He mentioned different Ragas for 24 songs.  Because in Geetagovinda he instructed every song to a special raga. These raga are Malaba, Gurjari, Basanta, Ramakiri, Gundakiri, Karnata, Desakhya, Desibaradi, Malabagouda, Baradi, Bhairabi, Desi which are now used in odissi songs. So he laid foundation stone for Odissi Music. The birth place of Odissi dance was from Srimandir and Sri Jayadev was the creditor of this art. Geeta Govinda is performed in all forms of Indian dance mainly Odissi, Bharatnatyam, Manipuri, Kuchipudi, Kathak. The Geeta Govinda padas have been rendered in the sophisticated Classical Musical styles of both Hindustani and Karnataki Music. So, due to its purely musical excellence dealing with different Ragas, Talas and Chhandas, the artists of music and dance appreciate Geeta Govinda widely.

   Sri Jayadev was a nature poet also. In Geet Govind he explained the seasons. Such as in “lalita labanga lata pari silan” he explained the youthful flowering, the hum of bees and cuckoo bird in spring season, and in “Chandana Charchita” he explains summer and in “Rasay Hari Miha” he explains cloud, peacock & rainbow in rainy season.

    Sri Jayadev took a special position in Orissan Cultural History. In case of changes in Orissan Religion, Sri Jayadev’s roll was important. At that time, Jainas, Baudhas, Shaktas opinion was so high that Baishnavaism cult was deemed. For Sri Jayadev’s Bhaktidhara for Baishnabaism, this cult took its position in Orissan Religion History. Before Sri Chaitanya’s arrival to Orissa, Sri Jayadev established Radha-Madhava in Orissan Religion History. Jayadev was the first person who has literally created Radha. In Geeta Govinda, he named Hari as Sri Krishna, Madhava, Basudeva, Jagadish, Kesaba, Purusottama, Murari etc. He found Lord Krishna in Lord Jagannath. In “Dasabatara” sloka he combined Buddhism, Ramaism and Madhavaism. He also spread Sri Jagannath cult all over India as a pilgrim in the last stage of his life.

     The first song “Dasabarata” written by Sri Jayadev is remarkable and different from other writers Dasabatara. Many Puranas, Aranyakas, Bramhanas say about Sri Bishnus’s different Abataras. In Mahabharata we found serially such as Hansa, Kurma, Mastya, Baraha, Narasimha. In Agni & Baraha Purana the serials are Mastya, Kurma, Baraha, Narasimha, Bamana, Parasurama, Rama, Krushna, Buddha and Kalki.  In 1800 century Charles Darwin, a Swiss Scientist was famous for his “Theory of Evolution” which is similar to Sri Jayadev’s Dasabatara of 12th century.

     So Sri Jayadev’s Geet Govind is the immortal work which enlightened the literature, art, architecture, music, dance, painting and textile in many ways.

     Previously, there was some controversy about the time and birth place of poet Shri Jayadeva. This has been at present finally accepted by one and all that Jayadeva was born in Kenduli village of Orissa in the 12th century A.D. The ongoing excavation work at Kenduli undertaken by Orissa State Museum has taken back the antiquity of Kenduli to a hoary past.  If we look into other evidence, it becomes quite apparent that Jayadeva was born in Orissa. The first Tikakara of Gitagovinda is Udayana. Udayana was the writer of inscription of Meghesvar Temple of Bhubaneswar and Sobhaneswar Temple of Niali. Swapneswar Deva the husband of Sister of Ganga king Raja Raja Deva was known to have built Meghesvar Temple. The time period of Raja Raja Deva was 1170-1194 A.D. From this it is quite clear that Gitagovinda had been composed before 1170 A.D. If we refer the work of Gobardhana Acharya,  the elder brother of Udayana, then it becomes automatically clear that Jayadeva had earned name and fame before the composition of Gobardhana. It is therefore apparent that by 1150 A.D. the Gitagovinda text has already been composed by Shri Jayadeva. Many mediaeval poets of India & Orissa have referred Jayadeva in their literary compositions. In the Sampradaya Pradipa written by Gada Dwivedi in 1553 A.D., Jayadeva has been mentioned as the poet of Orissa. In the Bhaktamala Grantha Nabaji of Gwalior has also agreed that Jayadeva belongs to Orissa. The Maratha poet Mahipati in his work has stated that the birth place of Jayadeva is Kenduvilva in Utkala Desa. He has further stated that Jayadeva has married to Padmabati in Purusottama Kshetra. The Bhaktamala Kavya of Krushna Dasa supports the above contention. The Maithali poet Chandra Data in his work Bhaktamala has written that Jayadeva was a Brahmin. He was the great devotee of Purusottama and his birth place was Kenduvilva near Purusottama Kshetra. He has further stated that Jayadeva has written his immortal kavya Gitagovinda at Purusottama Kshetra.  All the above schools of thought singularly point out that Kenduli of Utkala Desa was the birth place of Shri Jayadeva.


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